Natural Capitalism1

Written by Paul Hawken. Amory Lovins & L. Hunter Lovins

In 1998 the annual value of 17 ecosystems was estimated by scientists to be $36 trillion dollars. The Gross World Product in 1998 was $38 trillion dollars. Values identified by scientists included:


  • $1.3 trillion/year for atmospheric regulation of gases.
  • $2.3 trillion for the assimilation and processing of wastes.
  • $17 trillion for nutrient flows.
  • $2.8 trillion for the storage and purification of water.
  • $20.9 trillion from marine systems, especially coastal environments.


  • The value of all terrestial systems averaged just over $466/acre/year.
  • Marine systems averaged $234/acre/year.
  • The highest annual yield was for estuaries: $9. 240/acre/year.
  • Wetlands and flood plains had a value of $7.924/acre/year.


Designed by Free Joomla Templates